Seventy-three of the 97 ICF categories that form the Comprehensive ICF Core Set for schizophrenia achieved consensus, and only three categories that yielded consensus do not feature in this Core Set. Consensus was achieved for 75.3% of the ICF categories included in the Comprehensive ICF-CS, and 100% of those in the Brief ICF-CS. Taken together, these results suggest that the ICF-CSs for schizophrenia provide a clinically relevant framework for organizing information about this health condition. Applying the delta statistic method, a general index of .90 [95% CI: .89 - .91] was obtained, indicating that 90% of agreements were not due to chance. Indeed, we sought to obtain a sample of experts that, as far as possible, reflected worldwide variety in all the variables considered (e.g., gender, age, years of experience, and region). Although psychologists from all over the world took part, the Eastern Mediterranean, Western Pacific, and African WHO regions were under-represented, and this may limit the external validity of our results. 313 Early Neurocognitive Markers of Developmental Psychopathology Read the latest articles of Schizophrenia Research at ScienceDirect.com, Elsevier’s leading platform of peer-reviewed scholarly literature https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0217936.t002. The survey materials were independently translated and supervised by at least two native speakers. Read the latest articles of Schizophrenia Research at ScienceDirect.com, Elsevier’s leading platform of peer-reviewed scholarly literature Pages 845-857. here. A summary of the results is shown in the third and fourth row of Table 2. I have shared the major conclusions in my journal with the following first-person account of the psychological causes of my schizophrenia… There was a plan, a structure, and a method to my search. Journal of Clinical Psychology. Schizophrenia Journal Articles - Index - Medscape. All categories reported by at least 5% of the experts were listed and presented to the panel in the second Delphi round. The 7,526 concepts extracted from first-round responses were linked to 412 ICF categories and 53 personal factors. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0217936, Editor: Eduardo Fonseca-Pedrero, University of La Rioja, SPAIN, Received: January 26, 2019; Accepted: May 21, 2019; Published: June 6, 2019. Formal analysis, Four categories from the Body functions component of the ICF-CS (i.e., b330 Fluency and rhythm of speech functions, b530 Weight maintenance functions, b640 Sexual functions, and b765 Involuntary movement functions) did not achieve consensus in the Delphi study but were considered important by more than half the experts. REGULAR ARTICLE. I. Myth #1 Having schizophrenia is a sign of moral failing or weakness. Twenty-four categories that form part of the ICF-CS did not achieve consensus among the experts. To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under … The categories included in the ICF-CSs for schizophrenia were also listed. Positron emission tomography studies of D 2-antagonist antipsychotic drugs have shown that striatal D 2-receptor occupancy greater than 60% is generally required for a patient to have a high … Risperidone (oral forms) for people with schizophrenia 6 October 2017 | Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Vol. This validation study highlights the functioning-related issues that psychologists encounter in their work with individuals with schizophrenia and considers the extent to which these aspects are covered by the ICF Core Sets for schizophrenia. Let’s look at some common misconceptions. These results differ slightly from those obtained from the perspective of psychiatrists . This is a multistage process in which each stage or round builds on the results of the previous one in order to gather and provide information about a particular subject . Discover a faster, simpler path to publishing in a high-quality journal. Schizophrenia … The second-round survey was answered by 151 psychologists, and 137 completed the third round, with a response rate across rounds one to three of 78.3%. There has been only limited study of how individuals with schizophrenia experience mental illness stigma. Of these, only one (b126 Temperament and personality functions) does not feature in the ICF-CS for schizophrenia. No, PLOS is a nonprofit 501(c)(3) corporation, #C2354500, based in San Francisco, California, US, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0217936, https://www.icf-research-branch.org/icf-core-sets-projects2/mental-health/icf-core-set-for-schizophrenia. The Institutional Review Board Committee of University of Barcelona approved the Study IBR00003099. Unlike the dementias, schizophrenia has no classic histopathologic features readily identifiable with standard light microscopic assessments. This study aimed to explore the content validity of these ICF Core Sets and to identify the most common problems in people with schizophrenia from the perspective of psychologists. As Personal factors are not currently categorized in the ICF, they do not feature in the ICF-CS for schizophrenia. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0217936.g003. No, Is the Subject Area "Cognitive psychology" applicable to this article? Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field. This level of agreement supports the relevance of personal factors to the assessment and treatment of individuals with schizophrenia. schizophrenia journal pdf of Clinical Psychology 2005;44:181-191.. Schizophrenia - NCBI - NIH Investigation, Keep on Citing! At the 54th World Health Assembly on 22 May 2001 the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) was officially endorsed (resolution WHA 54.21) by all 191 member states of the World Health Organization (WHO) as the international standard to describe and measure health and disability . Volume 77, Issue 1. No, Is the Subject Area "Mental health therapies" applicable to this article? 1. CiteScore values are based on citation counts in a range of four years (e.g. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, Volume 129, Issue 8 (Nov 2020) Editor. A basic requirement for the implementation of these ICF-CSs in clinical practice is their validation from different perspectives. The ICF-CSs for schizophrenia can be used as a standard set of ICF categories to facilitate the assessment of functioning in real-life clinical practice by using the ICF qualifiers, which are codes used to record the extent of functioning or disability in a domain or category, or the extent to which an environmental factor is a facilitator or barrier. The Comprehensive ICF-CS categories that were selected by fewer than 50% of psychologists mainly referred to simple activities such as d210 Undertaking a single task and d330 Speaking, whereas consensus was achieved for the equivalent more complex categories (e.g., d220 Undertaking multiple tasks). Possible reasons for this under-representation include limited internet access and lower numbers of psychologists in these regions. The agreed-upon categories especially concerned support and relationships (e.g., e320 Friends), attitudes (e410 Individual attitudes of immediate family members), and the accessibility of health services (e580 Health services, systems, and policies). Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder that afflicts more than 21 million people worldwide . Schizophrenia is a devastating illness with an early adulthood onset and persistent course. Roles Psychology by Richard Gross All the major domains of Psychology are covered in detail across 50 manageable chapters that will help you get to grips with anything from the nervous system to memory, from attachment to personality, and everything in-between. e0217936. The component with the largest number of categories achieving consensus was Activities and Participation. With the aim of avoiding language barriers and encouraging participation by experts from different world regions, the study was conducted in five languages (Chinese, English, French, Russian, and Spanish). Personal factors, such as resilience [36,37], premorbid cognitive skills , premorbid social skills , personal history and biography , premorbid drug use and lifestyle , and premorbid personality  have been considered to influence how people with schizophrenia cope with their illness. Expert psychologists from around the world were recruited by contacting international associations of psychologists, universities with health professional training programs, and hospitals. Theory of mind in schizophrenia - Volume 191 Issue 1. Table 1 shows participants’ demographic and professional characteristics. Schizophrenia - Psychology bibliographies - in Harvard style . Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 72, 523 – 530. Each ICF-CS comprises a selection of ICF categories that are considered essential for describing the functioning of a person living with the corresponding health condition. Dangerousness, unpredictability and the fear of people with schizophrenia. Volume 59, Issue 1. Worldwide clinical guidelines consider psychological interventions to be one of the mainstays of treatment and emphasize the importance of cognitive-behavioral therapy, cognitive remediation, and family intervention [6–8]. Related Journal of Schizophrenia Disorder. Of the 1,555 health professionals who agreed to take part and who provided demographic and professional data, 223 were psychologists who met the eligibility criteria and who were therefore invited to begin round one of this study. Having a basic set of categories that addresses a particular patient population at different stages of an illness and that helps both to improve communication within multi-professional teams and to guide the management and treatment of patients by different health professionals is important for ensuring optimal care . A collection of recently published articles from subdisciplines of psychology covered by more than 90 APA journals. All categories included in the Brief ICF-CS for schizophrenia were selected by 75% or more of participating experts, thus supporting the relevance of the categories that form this ICF-CS. For the 70 million people affected worldwide, please know, that it’s not your fault. Next. The kappa coefficient for the linking process was .90 [95% CI: .88 - .92]. The expected completion time for each survey round was about 15 minutes. To help them with this survey they were asked to consider six open-ended questions that covered all four components of the ICF-CS; the Environmental factors component was divided into supportive and hindering factors (survey questions can be consulted in S1 Text). Institute for Medical Information Processing, Biometry and Epidemiology–IBE, Research Unit for Biopsychosocial Health, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität (LMU), Munich, Germany, This category belongs to chapter e1 Products and Technology, and it should be noted that the ICF-CS for schizophrenia already contains four categories from the same chapter (i.e., e110 Products or substances for personal consumption, e125 Products and technology for communication, e130 Products and technology for education and e165 Assets). Yes Given that an ICF-CS needs to be as short as possible, this domain may already be sufficiently covered by these four categories. Formal analysis, This article posits that this emphasis on psychosis is a conceptual fallacy that has greatly contributed to the lack of progress in our … For You ... Journal of Pediatric Psychology, March 25, 2020 . CiteScore: 6.4 ℹ CiteScore: 2019: 6.4 CiteScore measures the average citations received per peer-reviewed document published in this title. For more information about PLOS Subject Areas, click Read full-text medical journal articles from Medscape's Schizophrenia Journal Articles. Conceptualization, In order to be able to compare our findings with the ICF-CSs for schizophrenia, which comprise solely second-level categories, all third- and fourth-level categories identified in the Delphi process were aggregated to their corresponding second-level category. Data curation, The Comprehensive ICF-CS for schizophrenia consists of 97 categories covering the characteristic spectrum of problems in functioning and health that are experienced by individuals with this disorder; it also includes environmental factors. These results offer a more positive view of the abilities of people with schizophrenia, since it suggests that their difficulties mainly depend on the complexity of the task. Supervision, Methodology, Schizophrenia Schizophrenia is a serious mental illness characterized by incoherent or illogical thoughts, bizarre behavior and speech, and delusions or hallucinations, such as hearing voices. Pettenkofer School of Public Health, Munich, Germany, Fifty-three categories were proposed for the Personal factors identified. We conducted a three-round worldwide Delphi study by means of an e-mail survey. Copyright: © 2019 Nuño et al. Bjorn Rishovd Rund. The relevance of this category was likewise noted in the Delphi study from the perspective of psychiatrists , where agreement was even higher (97%). Schizophrenia is a serious mental illness characterized by incoherent or illogical thoughts, bizarre behavior and speech, and delusions or hallucinations, such as hearing voices. The content validity of the ICF-CSs for schizophrenia has already been examined and supported from the perspective of psychiatrists . Yes Responses in the first Delphi round were logged using an online survey system (www.qualtrics.com). Data regarding the categories presented to experts in rounds two and three and the degree of consensus reached are shown in the first two rows of Table 2. The primary limitation of the study concerns the representativeness of the panel of experts. The ICF provides just such a framework. Following the methodology endorsed by the WHO , the ICF-CSs for schizophrenia have already been developed through a formal decision-making consensus process, integrating evidence from four preparatory studies and expert opinion . https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0217936.s001, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0217936.s002, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0217936.s003, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0217936.s004, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0217936.s005, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0217936.s006, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0217936.s007. Online First Articles. 313 Early Neurocognitive Markers of Developmental Psychopathology The Brief ICF-CS for schizophrenia includes just 25 of these categories, the ones considered most important for the purposes of assessment and treatment. Yes Writing – review & editing. For the 70 million people affected worldwide, please know, that it’s not your … Related Journals of Schizophrenia. Schizophrenia is a mental disorder that generally appears in late adolescence or early adulthood - however, it can emerge at any time in life. The specific symptoms that have been felt to characterize schizophrenia have varied widely over time and across cultures, as has the diagnostic and prognostic importance placed on these symptoms. No, Is the Subject Area "Clinical psychology" applicable to this article? However, a useful functional psychology of schizophrenia (in distinction to a psychological approach to symptoms) remains clinically important for several reasons: it is a core part of the bio- psycho -social formulation; it helps us understand and connect with persons with schizophrenia; … The two ICF-CSs for schizophrenia are available for free download at: https://www.icf-research-branch.org/icf-core-sets-projects2/mental-health/icf-core-set-for-schizophrenia. Department of Psychiatry, International University of Catalonia, Barcelona, Spain, Roles 56, No. Read the latest articles of Schizophrenia Research: Cognition at ScienceDirect.com, Elsevier’s leading platform of peer-reviewed scholarly literature Four of the 17 categories that are included in the ICF-CS for schizophrenia (b330 Fluency and rhythm of speech functions, b530 Weight maintenance functions, b640 Sexual functions, and b765 Involuntary movement functions) did not achieve consensus in the Delphi study (see S1 Table for more details). To conclude, the results of this study provide strong support for the content validity of the Comprehensive ICF-CSs for schizophrenia as they were obtained by surveying psychologists from all six WHO regions. Resources, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0217936.g001. The proposed categorization of Personal factors was developed by consensus among three psychologists (L.N., M.B., G.G.) The first use of cognitive therapy to help people with schizophrenia was in 1952 .Beginning somewhat later, with Kuipers et al. More detail regarding the categories listed by the experts and the corresponding percentage analyses is provided in S1–S5 Tables. Specifically, 52% of invited experts who did not respond had less than five years’ experience in the treatment of individuals with schizophrenia, while this was the case for only 20% of the experts who did take part in the first round. Methodology, Methodology, Funding acquisition, Consensus (≥75% agreement) was reached for 76 ICF categories and 28 personal factors. It is worth noting that these categories did yield agreement of 75% or higher in the Delphi study from the perspective of psychiatrists, thus highlighting how different professional views may complement one another. Schizophrenia Schizophrenia Hemsley, D. R. 1993-02-01 00:00:00 BPS DIVISION OF CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY Reference Library on Clinical Practice Schizophrenia D. R. Hemsley* Department o Psychology, Institute o Psychiatty, DeCrespky Park, London SE5 8 A F , UK f f Hirsch, S. R. (1986). Yes broad scope, and wide readership – a perfect fit for your research every time. Conceptualization, For additional free resources (such as article summaries, podcasts, and more), please … Most of the categories that psychologists regarded as important coincide with those identified in the validation study from the perspective of psychiatrists , suggesting that the proposed list of Personal factors captures the aspects that merit particular consideration in this population. b156 Perceptual functions ). These categories covered all its chapters and focused especially on learning and applying knowledge (e.g., d160 Focusing attention), interpersonal interactions (e.g., d720 Complex interpersonal interactions), and major life areas such as education (e.g., d830 Higher education) and employment (e.g., d845 Acquiring, keeping and terminating a job). International Journal of Social Psychiatry, Vol. A brief overview of schizophrenia, and the biological and environmental causal factors of it. Of the 29 categories from this component that yielded consensus in the Delphi study, only one (i.e., e135 Products and technology for employment) is not included in the ICF-CS for schizophrenia. In order to facilitate comparison with previous studies that use the kappa index, we also calculated this statistic and its 95% CI . For instance, if the reported problem was ‘executive dysfunction’, the concept ‘executive function’ was extracted and assigned to the ICF category b164 Higher-level cognitive functions. COVID-19 resources for psychologists, health-care workers and the public. Our aim was to recruit a panel of experts as broad and heterogeneous as possible and to achieve consensus and common opinion despite and across this variability. Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. Popular AMA APA ... Indian Journal of Psychiatry, 54(1), p.95. The categories for which there was agreement in the third round were compared with the categories included in both the Brief and Comprehensive ICF-CSs. A theoretical analysis of schizophrenia based on a cognitive model integrates the complex interaction of predisposing neurobiological, environmental, cognitive, and behavioral factors with the diverse symptomatology. The fact that there are also some differences in emphasis between psychologists and psychiatrists highlights the importance of considering different professional points of view in order to achieve a fuller picture of how functioning is affected in this population. Table 3 lists the categories that did not match in the two sets of data (the set of categories included in the ICF-CS for schizophrenia and the set of categories that reached consensus). To ensure that study participants were all “informed individuals” with regard to the treatment of individuals with schizophrenia, the initial invitation letter specified that they should be “psychologists experienced in the treatment of schizophrenia”. Abstract. Schizophrenia typically begins in early adulthood. The goals of these interventions are manifold, with key targets being to improve psychological wellbeing and quality of life, neurocognition, and family communication. Third- and fourth-level categories are more specific than second-level categories, and they share the attributes of the second-level category with which they are associated. This area is one of the main targets of psychological interventions such as cognitive remediation therapy (CRT), which aims to improve neurocognition and other functional outcomes in individuals with schizophrenia . Investigation, Schizophrenia is a neurodevelopmental disorder that involves a complex interplay between genetic and environmental factors that contribute to its clinical phenotype and the underlying endophenotype. In light of these results, it would be useful if the ICF included comprehensive specifications of ‘Personal factors’, or at least a list of such factors, so as to enable more systematic reporting of the personal factors that influence functioning and health and to further stimulate research in this important area . This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Introduction. Yes Clinical treatment of schizophrenia. Classification is the process of organising symptoms into categories based on which symptoms cluster together in sufferers. Original Article. For each category, they were asked to indicate whether it was relevant from their perspective as a psychologist to the assessment and/or treatment of individuals with schizophrenia. Department of Social Psychology and Quantitative Psychology, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain, BMC Psychology is an open access, peer-reviewed journal that considers manuscripts on all aspects of psychology, human behavior and the mind, including developmental, clinical, cognitive, experimental, health and social psychology, as well as personality and individual differences. Department of Social Psychology and Quantitative Psychology, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain, Roles The Delphi process is shown in Fig 2. 19-39. Any disagreements between the two independent coders were reviewed and discussed by two other health professionals with the aim of achieving consensus. Software, Two health professionals with experience of treating persons with schizophrenia and trained in the use of the ICF independently linked all responses from the first Delphi round to the corresponding ICF categories. Learn more about all the facets of schizophrenia here. From the experts’ answers in round one, a total of 7,526 concepts were extracted and linked to 412 ICF categories (219 second-level, 189 third-level, and 4 fourth-level). Together, they accounted for 52.17% of the articles … Such a large sample is not common in this kind of study [44,45]. Section 1: Diagnosis and Classification of Schizophrenia . Study participants were interviewed with the Consumer Experiences of Stigma Questionnaire (CESQ), the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, and several social functioning measures. As in the previous study from the perspective of psychiatrists, the component with the second highest number of categories showing agreement of at least 75% was Environmental factors. Schizophrenia is currently classified as a psychotic disorder. For more information about PLOS Subject Areas, click Therefore, their use implies that the corresponding second-level category is applicable. Of these, the ambiguous categories (i.e., those selected by more than 50% but less than 75% of the expert panel) mainly belong to chapter d6 Domestic life (e.g., d640 Doing housework) or are related to employment (e.g., d855 Non-remunerative employment). A total of 175 psychologists from 46 countries covering the six WHO regions answered the first-round survey (78.5% of the 223 who were sent the survey material). Abstract Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder associated with impairment in functioning. Importantly, improvement and decline in aspects of functioning can be displayed in a functioning profile over the course of treatment or over the life span. Not suited to application in everyday clinical practice 14 ] a summary of the in! 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